Toggle menu visibility. Writing Tips. Match each source to its information in the text by using the same number, but do not raise it into superscript. Et al. Categories: Featured Articles Essays Citation.
You must agree to the changes in order to access your account, and all the work associated with it. If you do not agree to these changes, you will be logged out and your account will be deactivated.
Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection an essay in a collection), cite the author of the internal source (i.e., the article or essay). Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author, type of citation is less common and should only be used for papers or writing in.
I agree I do not agree. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior.
J Physiol 40 2 Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxx behavior in female mice. J Physiol 40 8 Each model is shown as the full citation plus the in-text citation format. Journal Article: Single author. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship Bugjuice OR Bugjuice Timm, T.
The role of whisker length in mouse J Physiol 61 3 The role of estrogen in J Physiol 2 6 Bugjuice et al. Author s Unknown or Not Named. If the authorship of a paper or other document is not provided, cite the author using the word "Anonymous" in the place of the authors name s. Department, Popville, Maine.
Anonymous OR Anonymous Gumwad, G. Behavior patterns of mice. New York: Harper Gumwad OR Gumwad Huth, J.
Robinson, P. Scientific format and style The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huth et al. Kuret, J. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related New York: Pergamon.
Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red : "It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior Gumwad ; Bugjuice Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there.
Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers , give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author , cite it as Anon.
Year, e. See Full Citation. If you want reference a paper found in another article , do so as follows: Driblick , in Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e. Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Top of Page Personal Communications: Suppose some of the information cited above was not gained from the Gumwad and Bugjuice publications, but rather in a personal conversation with or letter from an expert on the subject, Dr.
When you have talked with, or written to someone, and gained some information or data that are not published, you should give credit to that person in the following way: "It has been found that male mice