Organism used to synthesise

Bacteria to produce bioplastics

The main reaction taking place here is the conversion of lactose to lactic acid, acidifying the milk, which explains how they get their name. Examples from this category include:.

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Lactic acid bacteria are a ubiquitous starter culture Adjunct Cultures Adjuncts are microbes that are added for reasons other than just producing lactic acid. In many cases, adjuncts are added to encourage flavor development in the cheese. Lactobacillus helveticus see above is a common example, often giving cheeses a pleasant sweet flavor and promoting the growth of tyrosine crystals. Usually these microbes are present naturally in the milk or get picked up along the way during cheesemaking. Each of their exact roles in cheese flavor development is still trying to be understood completely.

Examples include:. Swiss cheese and Gouda to a lesser degree have pronounced eye hole formation due to the action of certain bacteria. Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. The carbon dioxide seeps into the cheese body and produces the eyes we all know and love. The other products of Propionibacterium metabolism also give the characteristic flavors commonly associated with Swiss cheeses. Propionibacterium produce CO 2 and form the eyes in Swiss Gouda cheese often have eyes as well, although usually to a smaller degree than Swiss.

In this case it is citric acid that is converted to carbon dioxide and diacetyl buttery flavor.

While there are specific molds cheesemakers add to get the cheese they want, there are many molds that grow naturally on the surfaces of cheese during affinage. Penicillium camemberti fka Penicillium candidum is the most popular mold species that is responsible for the nice white lawn on the surfaces of cheeses like camembert and brie. The metabolism of this mold is responsible for some of the characteristic aromas associated with white mold cheeses mushroom , ammonia, etc. You can often see this by looking at a cross section of a piece of young brie.

Modified bacteria used to make indigo dyes

In a similar investigation, Korbekandi et al. Several advantages such as higher yields and productivity and lower labour costs are the main reasons for this. Cost effectiveness is another factor that must be addressed to make the process sustainable. Mary SC et al Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Adiantum capillus verenis against Anopheles stephensi diptera; culicidae. This has the considerable advantage that growth inhibition by the substrate is eliminated. One area, which needs attention is the development of continuous culture techniques which have been attempted but only at the laboratory scale. Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.

Penicillium camemberti covers Brie and Camembert Blue Mold Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium glaucum are the big players in the blue mold worlds. These are what give bleus the blues. The pigments are created by the molds as well as the unique flavor and distinctive texture. As mentioned in the opening paragraph of the post, these molds are living breathing organisms. Starving them of oxygen will change their metabolism and they will change color as well as produce off-flavors. A common misconception is that when blue cheeses are pierced during the aging process that mold is being injected.

Actually, those needles are there to create air channels. The mold is usually added to the milk during the preliminary cheese making steps or to the curds before they're hooped. The piercing only serves to encourage mold growth by introducing oxygen. It is also responsible for foot odor, which explains the smell of many surface ripened cheeses. This bacterium produces a multitude of compounds including ones that give rise to the distinctive aroma. Corynebacteria are another class of bacteria commonly found on these cheeses. It's important to remember that the combination of microorganisms is what makes the magic happen for many cheeses.

Brevibacterium linens and yeast often produces orange colored pigments Top Yeasts Often forgotten, but yeast are commonly used in the molded and surface ripened cheeses. They are also naturally present in many natural rind cheeses.

Modified bacteria used to make indigo dyes

These are important parts of the aging process of many cheeses. In many cases, there is a careful balance of yeast, mold, and bacteria that give rise to natural rinds. Flavorings may be added depending on the cheese. Some common ingredients include herbs, spices, hot and sweet peppers, horseradish, and port wine. Cultures for cheese making are called lactic acid bacteria LAB because their primary source of energy is the lactose in milk and their primary metabolic product is lactic acid.

There is a wide variety of bacterial cultures available that provide distinct flavor and textural characteristics to cheeses. For a more detailed description of cheese cultures and microbiology, see Fox , Kosikowski and Mistry , and Law Starter cultures are used early in the cheese making process to assist with coagulation by lowering the pH prior to rennet addition.

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The metabolism of the starter cultures contribute desirable flavor compounds, and help prevent the growth of spoilage organisms and pathogens. Typical starter bacteria include Lactococcus lactis subsp. Adjunct cultures are used to provide or enhance the characteristic flavors and textures of cheese.

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Common adjunct cultures added during manufacture include Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum for flavor in Cheddar cheese, or the use of Propionibacterium freudenreichii for eye formation in Swiss. Adjunct cultures can also be used as a smear for washing the outside of the formed cheese, such as the use of Brevibacterium linens of gruyere, brick and limburger cheeses.

Yeasts and molds are used in some cheeses to provide the characteristic colors and flavors of some cheese varieties. Torula yeast is used in the smear for the ripening of brick and limberger cheese. Examples of molds include Penicillium camemberti in camembert and brie, and Penicillium roqueforti in blue cheeses. The temperatures, times, and target pH for different steps, the sequence of processing steps, the use of salting or brining, block formation, and aging vary considerably between cheese types.

The following flow chart provides a very general outline of cheese making steps. The general processing steps for Cheddar cheese are used for illustration. For a more detailed explanation see the literature references by Fox , Kosikowski and Mistry , Law , Walstra et al.

The times, temperatures, and target pH values used for cheddar cheese will depend on individual formulations and the intended end use of the cheese. These conditions can be adjusted to optimize the properties of Cheddar cheese for shredding, melting, or for cheese that is meant to be aged for several years.

Milk is often standardized before cheese making to optimize the protein to fat ratio to make a good quality cheese with a high yield.

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Depending on the desired cheese, the milk may be pasteurized or mildly heat-treated to reduce the number of spoilage organisms and improve the environment for the starter cultures to grow. Some varieties of milk are made from raw milk so they are not pasteurized or heat-treated. Raw milk cheeses must be aged for at least 60 days to reduce the possibility of exposure to disease causing microorganisms pathogens that may be present in the milk.

The ripening step allows the bacteria to grow and begin fermentation, which lowers the pH and develops the flavor of the cheese.

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The rennet is the enzyme that acts on the milk proteins to form the curd. After the rennet is added, the curd is not disturbed for approximately 30 minutes so a firm coagulum forms. The curd is allowed to ferment until it reaches pH 6. The heating step helps to separate the whey from the curd. The curd mats are cut into sections and piled on top of each other and flipped periodically.

This step is called cheddarin g.

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Cheddaring helps to expel more whey, allows the fermentation to continue until a pH of 5. The curd mats are then milled cut into smaller pieces. For cheddar cheese, the smaller, milled curd pieces are put back in the vat and salted by sprinkling dry salt on the curd and mixing in the salt.

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Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are polyesters produced in nature by numerous microorganisms, including through bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. When produced by bacteria they serve as both a source of energy and as a These plastics are biodegradable and are used in the production of bioplastics. They can. applications [15]. Therefore a “green”, non-toxic way of synthesising metallic nanoparticles is needed in order to allow them to be used in a.